Posted on 02/12/2018 9:59:09 PM PST by SunkenCiv
Summary: Who helped build the first trading networks in the earliest civilization? Scholars long thought that wandering nomads moving their flocks in the Near East helped spur urban growth by bringing stone, wood, and metals to the plains of Mesopotamia. That assumption was built, in part, on studies of modern-day nomads in Anatolia, Iraq, and Iran. Thanks to recent isotopic analyses from ancient sites, that view is under siege. Archaeologists like Emily Hammer from the University of Pennsylvania suggest that pastoralists did not stray far from home until long after cities like Ur and Mari flourished around 2000 B.C.E. That assertion, however, has met with skepticism from many researchers, who insist that nomads played a key role in the birth and evolution of the first cities.
(Excerpt) Read more at science.sciencemag.org …
The earliest evidence of long-distance trade in obsidian occurs during the late-glacial period, in the still-open landscapes before the spread of forests, when it circulated among Epipalaeolithic hunting and foraging groups around the Fertile Crescent. Two chains of connection are already evident: obsidian from the Bingöl region of south-east Turkey reached Iraqi Kurdistan (via the Hilly Flanks route), and obsidian from the Cappadocian area of central Turkey was carried across the Taurus to the middle Euphrates and the northern Levant (the Levantine Corridor).
To: StayAt HomeMother; Ernest_at_the_Beach; 1ofmanyfree; 21twelve; 24Karet; 2ndDivisionVet; 31R1O; …
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